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July 17 2018

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Medicinal properties of terpenes and terpenoids
Terpenoids and terpenes are aromatic constituents found in many thousands of plant species. These substances are responsible for the cannabis varieties having a different taste and smell.

We have known for decades that these substances are found in cannabis, but the knowledge of their potential therapeutic potential has only recently begun to increase.

What are terpenes and terpenoids?

Terpenes are an extensive class of naturally occurring organic ingredients.

They are also known as Isoprene, since their structure is based on recurring isoprene chains (C5H8).

Terpenes are important components of vegetable resins and essential oils derived from such plants.

Terpenes are simple hydrocarbons, while terpenoids contain other functional groups that can consist of several chemical elements.

However, it has become customary to take the term "terpene" and the terpenoids in many existing spellings.

The terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are the largest group of organic ingredients found so far and consist of at least 20,000 different molecules.

The Isoprene Rule

The limonene, which consists of two linked isoprene groups, can be designated (C5H8) 2, which corresponds to C10H16. Several other terpenes have the same structure, but the two isoprene groups are arranged differently.

Together they are called monoterpenes (where the prefix "mono" refers to the number of complete terpene groups, i.e. one terpene group corresponds to two isoprene groups).

Terpenoids with three linked isoprene groups are referred to as sesquiterpenes (where "sesqui" means one and a half), those with four as diterpenes, and so forth.

The formula (C5H8) n, where n denotes the number of linked isoprene groups, is also referred to as the isoprene rule and is one of the most abundant in nature.
The cannabis plant produces the cannabinoids through a complex array of chemical reactions, suggesting that the terpenes play a role as "building blocks".

Cannabinoids are known as terpenophenolic substances because they consist of terpene groups attached to phenolic groups (C6H6O).

Since terpenes are precursors of cannabinoids, a variety of terpenes are often a sign of high cannabinoid content.
Which of these substances are found in cannabis?
Cannabis is thought to contain more than 120 terpenes, although many of them are only trace elements and, if any, have negligible effects.

The primary terpenes and terpenoids identified in cannabis are the substances limonene, myrcene, pinene, linalol, cineole, Y-terpinene, beta-karyophyllene, karyophyllene oxide, nerolidol and phytol.

Unlike cannabinoids, these substances are not only found in cannabis (though there are indications that other plant species also contain some phytocannabinoids), and many of them are already well known to us.
Limonene is the monoterpene, which is mainly responsible for the smell of citrus fruits - especially its D-isomer. D-limonene in isolated form smells strongly of oranges and is called

Flavor widely used in food production, as well as a flavoring in perfumery. It is also used in alternative medicine because of its observed ability to alleviate heartburn and gastric acid reflux.
In addition, it is used as a natural, renewable solvent in the purification of products where it can dissolve oils and other lipids.

The fabric is even able to quench color and is considered an effective replacement for turpentine. Care must be taken when handling this substance, as it can act as an irritant in high concentrations.

D-limonene is also added to cannabis extracts as a flavor enhancer today because many of the existing terpenes are lost during extraction.
Myrcene is another monoterpene and the terpene found in cannabis in the largest amount. For some varieties, it accounts for more than 60% of the essential oils.

It is also found in laurel leaves, wild thyme, hops, cananga trees, lemongrass and verbena.

Myrcene is responsible for the "green hop flavor" found in dry-hopped beer (beer, which after fermentation is added to hops at low temperature to enhance its hop flavor).

The aroma as such is described as resinous, herbaceous and slightly metallic; in high concentrations it is very pungent.
Another plant that contains myrcene in substantial amounts is Myrcia sphaerocarpa (Myrcia is the genus for which myrcene is named), a small shrub with astringent leaves and roots native to Brazil, where it has long been used to treat diarrhea, Diarrhea, diabetes and hypertension is used.
Myrcene has been shown to have analgesic effects in rat laboratory tests. In myrcene and limonene, as with the terpenoid citral (found in many citrus fruits, lemon myrtle, lemongrass and lemon shrub), a sedative and motor relaxing effect was found in mice.
Pinen is another monoterpene that occurs naturally in two isomers (that is, in molecules with the same chemical formula but different structure).

These isomers are known as α-pinene and β-pinene. They are usually made from turpentine (produced by dry distillation from coniferous wood) and account for 58-65% or about 30% of the total volume.
As in cannabis, a- and ß-pinene occur in pines and other conifers, as well as in salvia (sage), artemisia (mugwort) and eucalyptus. A-pinene also occurs in olives, rosemary, sassafras and bergamot; it is the most common terpene in nature.

B-pinene is also found in hops and cumin.
A-pinene is known to inhibit root growth in many plant species, which is thought to be due to the production of reactive oxygen, which causes oxygen stress within the root system.

It is believed that many plant species exhale the substance as a natural herbicide through their leaves, which should prevent other plants from competing with them for resources.

At low dose, the substance also acts as a bronchodilator in humans and has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antibiotic properties.
More Infos under: https://sensiseeds.com/de/blog/medizinische-eigenschaften-von-terpenen-und-terpenoiden/
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